Konsep Asuransi Jiwa
 

“Life Insurance is not bought because someone will die, but because someone else must go on living”
“In old age, people are usually sorry for the things they did not do rather than for the things they did do”
 

I. Pemilik dan Tertanggung
 
Dalam hal membeli asuransi jiwa, pemegang polis terlibat dalam suatu perjanjian yang disebut “polis asuransi jiwa” dimana tertangung membayar sejumlah premi dan sebaliknya perusahaan asuransi setuju untuk membayarkan sejumlah uang pertanggungan.

Pemegang polis (pemilik) dan tertanggung bisa merupakan orang yang sama atau dua orang yang berbeda.
Apabila mereka adalah orang yang sama, tertanggung mengasuransikan jiwanya sendiri (Tertanggung = pemilik polis)

Apabila mereka berbeda, tertanggung polis diasuransikan atas jiwa orang lain (Tertanggung bukan pemilik polis)
 
II.Pemindahan risiko risiko pribadi

Para pemegang polis memberikan kontribusi ke suatu kumpulan dana yang disebut “Dana asuransi” yang membayarkan manfaat kepada tanggungan para pemegang polis setelah kematianya atau manfaat jatuh tempo jika pemegang polis hidup sampai ahir masa asuransi. Konsep ini disebut “risk pooling”.

Pemegang polis menukarkan ketidak pastiannya dengan kepastian…Sebagai ganti suatu kerugian yang pasti maka dengan membayar premi pemegang polis terlepas dari ketidak pastian suatu potensi kerugian yang jauh lebih besar yang berhubungan dengan kehilangan jiwa atau cacat.
 
 
Risiko yang bisa diasuransikan

Tidak semua risiko dapat diasuransikan, hanya risiko risiko yang memenuhi syarat berikut ini:
 

  • Kerugian terjadi karena tidak sengaja misalnya menderita penyakit kritis ditahap akhir polis.
  • Kerugian bersifat pasti yaitu merupakan kondisi yang bisa diidentifikasi misalnya kematian, sakit, ketidak mampuan, cacat, usia tua.
  • Kerugian bersifat mejakinkan misalnya seorang tidak mampu lagi bekerja karena suatu kecelakaan.
  • Tingkat kerugian bisa diprediksi misalnya tingkat kematian dapat diprediksi melalui penerapan hokum bilangan besar
  • Kerugian tidak mengakibakan masalah bagi perusahaan asuransi, yaitu kematian sesorang tidak akan menyebabkan perusahaan pailit.
  •  
    Menetapkan Prioritas
     

    Piramida Perencanaan Keuangan adalah sarana yang dapat membantu setiap keluaga dalam proses perencanaan keuangan untuk menentukan prioritas mana yang paling dibutuhkan pada saat ini dan dihari depan.
     

     
    Tahap Dana Tunai
     
    Kebutuhan finasial paling utama dalam suatu keluarga adalah tersedianya dana tunai untuk membiayai kebutuhan sehari hari seperti makan, transportasi, tilpun, listrik dsb
    Diperlukan : Tabungan jangka pendek & Rumah

     
    Tahap Perlindungan Penghasilan keluarga
     
    Pada tahap ini mulai dipikirkan agar tersedianya:

  • Jaminan kelanjutan penghasilan jika terjadi kematian dalam masa produktip
  • Jaminan dana pendidikan bila terjadi musibah
  • Jaminan hari tua yang menyenangkan dan mandiri dalam segi keuangan
  •  
    Tahap Tabungan jangka panjang
     

    Pada tahap ini mulai memikirkan :

  • Membeli rumah atau mobil yang ke-2
  • Warisan untuk anak cucu
  • Sumbangan untuk yayasan
  •  
    Dalam mempersiapkan tabungan jangka panjang perlu diperhitungkan factor inflasi dan disiplin.
     
    Tahap Investasi
     
    Berinvestasi secara langsung memerlukan :

  • suatu pengetahuan khusus tentang instrument instrument investasi.
  • Waktu yang cukup untuk memantau investasinya
  •  
    Perhatian : Tingkat penerimaan risiko terhadap hasil investasi, tidak sama untuk setiap orang.
     
     
    Pertanyaan yang sering didengar adalah:
     
    “Bagaimana kalau Perusahaan Asuransi tutup …?”:

     
    “Peraturan pemerintah menetapkan bahwa apabila perusahaan asuransi tutup maka usahanya akan dilanjutkan oleh perusahaan asuransi yang masih sehat”
     
    “Apakah asuransi memberi jaminan menutup kerugian saya sebesar 100% …?”:

     
    “Sebesar Uang Pertanggungan iya …. akan tetapi ingat dengan keberadaan INFLASI maka besar kemungkinan Uang Pertanggungan tersebut tidak menutup kerugian yang anda alami dikemudian hari … akan tetapi selalu lebih baik ada dana yang tersedia daripada tidak …”
     

    Seberapa besar Life Insurance yang harus dibeli?

    kebanyakan orang tidak nyaman dengan kemungkinan meninggal baik secara alami atau karena kecelakaan/penyakit
    Akan tetapi apabila anda mempunyai keluarga yang tergantung pada pendapatan anda maka sebaiknya mulai memikirkan pemecahannya

    Salah kaprah perihal life insurance

    Apakah setiap orang memerlukan Life Insurance?

    Apabila anda :

    1. tidak mempunyai tanggungan (no dependents)

    2.mempunyai cukup assets untuk membayar hutang – biaya pemakaman – biaya pengacara

    maka life insurance tidak diperlukan dan hanya menjadi biaya yg tak diperlukan

    Baca pula To learn about insurance basics Understand Your Insurance Contract and Exploring Advanced Insurance Contract Fundamentals.)

    Insurance and Age

    Para agen dengan bersemangat akan berucap “insurance is harder to qualify for as you age, so you better get it while you are young.”

    Dengan kata lain perusahaan asuransi melakukan taruhan uang perihal berapa tahun anda akan meninggal

    Ketika masih berumur muda maka premiums akan relatip murah, akan tetapi apabila anda tiba tiba meninggal dan perusahaan wajib membayar dana asuransi maka berarti “anda taruhan jelek”

    Beruntung banyak yang berumur panjang , membayar premi yang makin tinggi ketika usianya menanjak itu dikarenakan risiko kematian yang makin mendekat

    Fakta bahwa perusahaan asuransi menerima usia 17 s/d 60 tahun dalam program mereka maka usahakanlah agar pada usia 55 tahun telah menutup polis
    Janganlah mengambil polis karena takut untuk tidak diterima akan tetapi karena memerlukannya

    Apakah Life Insurance sebuah Investasi?

  • Tidak…. bila merupakan program Tradisionil
  • Ya ..bila merupakan kombinasi dengan unit link
  •  
    Untuk mereka yang kurang disiplin dalam investasi boleh mencoba an index fund

    Seorang investor yang disiplin tidak akan puas dengan hasil yang ditawarkan perusahaan asuransi
     
    Cash Value vs. Term

    Insurance companies love cash-value policies and promote them heavily by giving commissions to agents who sell these policies. If you try to surrender the policy (demand your savings portion back and cancel the insurance), an insurance company will often suggest that you take a loan from your own savings to continue paying the premiums. Although this may seem like a simple solution, this loan will cost you, as you will have to pay interest to the insurance company for borrowing your own money.

    Term insurance is insurance pure and simple. You buy a policy that pays out a set amount if you die during the period to which the policy applies. If you don’t die, you get nothing (don’t be disappointed, you are alive after all). The purpose of this insurance is to hold you over until you can become self-insured by your assets. Unfortunately, not all term insurance is equally desirable. Regardless of the specifics of a person’s situation (lifestyle, income, debts), most people are best served by renewable and convertible term insurance policies. They offer just as much coverage and are cheaper than cash-value, and, with the advent of internet comparisons driving down premiums for comparable policies, you can purchase them at competitive rates.

    The renewable clause in a term life insurance policy means that the insuring company will allow you to renew your policy at a set rate without undergoing a medical. This means that if an insured person is diagnosed with a fatal disease just as the term runs out, he or she will be able to renew the policy at a competitive rate despite the fact that the insurance company is certain to have to pay out.
    The convertible insurance policy provides the option to change the face value of the policy into a cash-value policy offered by the insurer in case you reach 65 years of age and are not financially secure enough to go without insurance. Even though you will be planning in the hope of not having to use this option, it is better to be safe and the premium is usually quite inexpensive. (To learn more about life insurance types, see Buying Life Insurance: Term Versus Permanent, A Look At Single-Premium Life Insurance and What is the difference between term and universal life insurance?)

    Evaluating Your Insurance Needs
    A large part of choosing a life insurance policy is determining how much money your dependents will need. Choosing the face value (the amount your policy pays if you die) depends on:

    How much debt you have: All of your debts must be paid off in full, including car loans, mortgages, credit cards, loans, etc. If you have a $200,000 mortgage and a $4,000 car loan, you need at least $204,000 in your policy to cover you debts (and possibly a little more to take care of the interest as well).

    Income Replacement: One of the biggest factors for life insurance is for income replacement, which will be a major determinant of the size of your policy. If you are the only provider for your dependents and you bring in $40,000 a year, you will need a policy payout that is large enough to replace your income plus a little extra to guard against inflation. To err on the safe side, assume that the lump sum payout of your policy is invested at 8% (if you do not trust your dependents to invest, you can appoint trustees or chose a financial planner and calculate his or her cost as part of the payout). Just to replace your income, you will need a $500,000 policy. This is not a set rule, but adding your yearly income back into the policy (500,000 + 40,000 = 540,000 in this case) is a fairly good guard against inflation. Remember, you have to add this $540,000 to whatever your total debts add up to.

    Future Obligations: If you want to pay for your child’s college tuition or have your spouse move to Hawaii when you are gone, you will have to estimate the costs of those obligations and add them to the amount of coverage you want. So, if a person has a yearly income of $40,000, a mortgage of $200,000, and wants to send his or her child to university (let’s say this will cost $80,000), this person would probably want an $820,000 policy ($540,000 to replace yearly income + $200,000 for the mortgage expense + $80,000 university expense). Once you determine the required face value of your insurance company, you can start shopping around for the right policy (and a good deal). There are many online insurance estimators that can help you determine how much insurance you will need.

    Insuring Others: Obviously there are other people in your life who are important to you and you may wonder if you should insure them. As a rule, you should only insure people whose death would mean a financial loss to you. The death of a child, while emotionally devastating, does not constitute a financial loss because children cost money to raise. The death of an income-earning spouse, however, does create a situation with both emotional and financial losses. In that case, follow the income replacement trick we went through earlier (your spouse’s income/8% + inflation = how much you’ll need to insure your spouse for). This also goes for any business partners with which you have a financial relationship (for example, shared responsibility for mortgage payments on a co-owned property).

    Alternatives to Life Insurance
    If you are getting life insurance purely to cover debts and have no dependents, there is another way to go about it. Lending institutions have seen the profits of insurance companies and are getting in to the act. Credit card companies and banks offer insurance deductibles on your outstanding balances. Often this amounts to a few dollars a month and in the case of your death, the policy will pay that particular debt in full. If you opt for this coverage from a lending institution, make sure to subtract that debt from any calculations you are making for life insurance – being doubly insured is a needless cost.

    Summary
    If you need life insurance, it is important to know how much and what kind you need. Although generally renewable term insurance is sufficient for most people, you have to look at your own situation. If you choose to buy insurance through an agent, decide on what you’ll need beforehand to avoid getting stuck with inadequate coverage or expensive coverage that you don’t need. As with investing, educating yourself is essential to making the right choice.

    Let Insurance Be Your Peace of Mind
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